Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Paleoecologic and Paleoclimatic Reconstruction During Mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, Khartoum Basin: Geochemical and Clay Mineralogy Implication
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2015
Issue 5 (September)
Pages: 92-105   |   Vol. 2, No. 5, September 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 61   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 2045   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Authors
[1]
Fathelrahman A. Bireir, Department of Geology, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
[2]
Ali A. M. Eisawi, Faculty of Petroleum and Minerals, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.
[3]
Khalid A. Elsayed Zeinelabdein, Faculty of Petroleum and Minerals, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.
Abstract
This study documents the paleoecology and paleoclimatic development during the mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary times in the northern part of the Khartoum Basin. Eighty four (84) samples were selected from the Omdurman and the Gezira Formations and analysed through Philips X-Ray diffractometer (45 samples for clay minerals) and X-Ray Fluorescence (39 samples for geochemistry). The high content of kaolinite noted in the sediments of the Umm Badda Member (Albian–Cenomanian) suggests the prevalence of warm and humid condition. However, the presence of minor amount of smectite in the same interval indicates the occurrence of dry seasons, at least, toward the end of the Cenomanian. Simultaneous increase in kaolinite and smectite in the sediments of the lower part of the Gezira Formation (Oligocene – Miocene) reflects the prevalence of tropical humid climate with very long dry seasons directed toward total aridity with very short humid seasons at the end of the Miocene. The Miocene–Quaternary period was characterized by total arid conditions as indicated by the dominance of smectite in the sediments of the upper member of the Gezira Formation. The arid conditions became relatively wet during Holocene as indicated by the relative increase of kaolinite through the black cotton soil that covers the upper most unit in the Khartoum Basin.
Keywords
Paleoenvironment, Paleoclimate, Mid-Cretaceous, Quaternary, Khartoum Basin, Sudan
Reference
[1]
Wycisk, P. Klitzsch, Jas, C. Reynolds, O., 1990. Intracratonal sequence development and structural control of Phanerozoic strata in Sudan. Berliner geowiss. Abh. (A). 120/1, 45-86, Berlin.
[2]
Bussert, R. 1993a Evolution of Cretaceous basins in nothern Sudan, in Thorweihe, U., Schandelmeier, H.(eds), Geoscientific Research in Northeast Africa, Balkema, Rotterdam, 407-414
[3]
Bussert, R. 1993b. The Albian-Cenomanian palaeoclimate in nothern Sudan. In U.Thorweihe & H. Schandelmeier (Eds): Geoscientific Research in Northeast Africa, Balkema, Rotterdam, S. 415-419.
[4]
Bussert, R. 1998. Die Entwicklung intrakratonaler Becken im Nordsudan. Diss. TU Berlin
[5]
Awad, M.Z., Schrank, E., 1993. Paleoecology of late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous of the central and western Sudan. In U.Thorweihe and H. Schandelmeier (Eds): Geoscientific Research in Northeast Africa, Balkema, Rotterdam, S. 369-374.
[6]
Awad M.Z., 1994. Stratigraphic, palynological and palaeoecological studies in the East-Central Sudan (Khartoum and Kosti Basins), Late Jurassic to Mid-Tertiary. Berliner geowiss. Abh. Reihe A 161, 163p.
[7]
Bireir, F.A., 1993. Sedimentological investigation around the State of Khartoum and on the north central part of the Gezira Formation. Central Sudan. M.Sc. thesis, Univ. Khartoum.
[8]
Eisawi, A.A.M., Dawit, E.L., Awad, M.Z. 2009. Palynology and sedimentology of the mid-Cretaceous Omdurman Formation, Khartoum area, Sudan. Schweizerbart’sche verlagsbuchhandlung, p. 21-41, Stuttgart.
[9]
Abdelrahman, M., 1992. Geochemical, mineralogical and sedimentological studies on phosphorites of the Nile valley (Duwi Formation) between Qena and Idfu, Egypt. Ph.D. thesis, Technical University Berlin.
[10]
Thorez, J., 1975. Phyllosilicates and clay minerals: A laboratory handbook for their x-ray diffraction analysis. Lelotte (Dison), 579 p.
[11]
Moore, D.M., Reynold, R.C., 1989. X - Ray Diffraction and the identification and analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press, Inc. Oxford, Newyork. 332 p.
[12]
Keller, W.D., 1956. Clay minerals as influenced by environments of their formation. AAPG, V. 40:2689-2710.
[13]
Mankin, C.J., 1970. Introduction to the symposium papers on environmental aspects of clay minerals. J. Sedim. Petrol. 40, no. 3, pp. 788 - 854.
[14]
Gindy, A.R. 1983. Factors controlling clay mineralogy of Egyptian Phanerozoic mudrocks and marls; Geol. Jb., B 49, 3 - 25.
[15]
Chamley, H., 1979. North Atlantic clay sedimentation and paleoenvironment since the Late Jurassic. In: M. Talvvani, W. Hay and W.B.F. Ryan (Editors), Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Continental Margins and Paleoenvironment. Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, D. C, pp 342-361.
[16]
Yemane, K., Robert, C, Bonnetille, R., 1987. Pollen and clay mineral assemblages of a Late Miocene sequence from the Northwestern Ethiopian highlands. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 60: 123 - 141
[17]
Hirst, D.M., 1962. The geochemistry of moderen sediments from the Gulf of Paria-1. The relationship between the mineralogy and the distribution of major elements. Geochemica et Cosm. 26, pp.309 - 334.
[18]
Krauskopf, 1956. Introduction to geochemistry. Mc Graw Hill.
[19]
Degens, E.T., Williams, E.G., Keith, M.L., 1957. Environmental studies of carboniferous sediments Part 1: Geochemical criteria for differentiating marine from fresh water shales. AAPG, V. 41, No. 11, pp. 2427 - 2455.
[20]
Van andel, Tj.H., Poole, D.M., 1960. Sources of recent sediments, northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Sedim. Petrol. 30, 91-122.
[21]
Grim, R.E., 1953. Clay mineralogy. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Newyork, 384 p.
[22]
Norman, M.D., De Deckker, P., 1990. Trace metals in lacustrine and marine sediments : A case study from the Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia. Chemical Geology, 82 : 299 - 318.
[23]
Spencer, D.W., Degens, E.T., Kulbicki, G., 1968. Factors affecting element distribution in sediments Ed. (Ahrens) Origin and distribution of the elements, 30, 981 -998.
[24]
Bjorlykke, K., Englund, J.O., 1979. Geochemical responce to Upper Pre camberian Rift basin sedimentation and lower Palaeozoic epicontinental sedimentation in South Norway. Chem. Geology, 27, pp. 271 - 295.
[25]
Paropakri, A.L., 1990. Geochemistry of sediments from the Mangalorecochin shelf and upper slope off south west India: Geochemical and environmental factors controlling dispersal of elements. Chem. Geol., 81, pp. 99 - 119.
[26]
Barazi, N., 1985. Sedimentologie und stratigraphie des Abyad-Beckens, NW-Sudan. Berliner geowiss. Abh. A. 64, p. 80.
[27]
Wedepohl, K.H., 1960. Spurenanalytische Untersuchungen an Tiefseetonen aus dem Atlantik. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 18, 200.
[28]
Elzien, S.M., Abdelateif, F.A., 2013. Textural analysis and environmental deposition of late Cretaceous sediments, Khartoum Basin, Omdurman, Sudan. International journal of Engineering Research, v.1(3), p. 323-339.
[29]
Tan, L.P., Youh, C.C., Tang, C.H., 1977. Use of geochemistry in recognition of sedimentary environments and correlation in Taiwan. Petroleum Geol. of Taiwan, No. 14, pp. 3 11 - 327.
[30]
Spears, D.A., Amin, M.A., 1981. Geochemistry and mineralogy of marine and non - marine Namurian black shales from the Tansley Borehole, Derbyshire. Sedimentology 28, pp. 407 - 417.
[31]
White, S.M., 1970. Mineralogy and geochemistry of continental shelf sediments off the Washington - Oregon coast. J. Sedim. Petrol. 40, No. 1, p. 38 - 54
[32]
Maynard, B., 1982. Extension of Berner's (New geochemical classification of sedimentary environments) to ancient sediments. J. Sedim. Petro , 52, No. 4, pp. 1325- 1331.
[33]
Singer, A., 1980. The paleoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in soils and weathering profiles. Earth Sci. Rev., 15 (1979/80): 303 - 326.
[34]
Shrank, E., Awad, M.Z., 1990. Palynological evidence for the age and depositional environment of the Cretaceous Omdurman Formation in the Khartoum area, Sudan. Berliner Geowiss. Abh. Reihe A 120, 169- 182.
[35]
Robert, C., Chamley, H., 1987. Cenozoic evolution of continental humidity and paleoenvironment, deduced from the kaolinite content of oceanic sediments. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 60: 171 -187.
[36]
Adamson, D.A., Williams, M.A., Gillespie, R., 1982. Paleogeography of the Gezira and of the lower Blue and White Nile valleys. In: A land between two Niles, Ed. by Williams, M.A. and Adamson D.A., Balkema, Rotterdam. pp.165-219.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved