Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Vulnerability to Recurring Famine in Northern Kenya: An Application of the Pressure and Release Model
Current Issue
Volume 4, 2017
Issue 4 (August)
Pages: 38-45   |   Vol. 4, No. 4, August 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 19   Since Aug. 17, 2017 Views: 1130   Since Aug. 17, 2017
Chepkemoi Daisy, Sociology Department, Research Center for Environment and Society, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.
Gu Jintu, Sociology Department, Research Center for Environment and Society, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.
Kenya faces several types of environmental hazards yearly. These hazards ranging from floods to drought affect different regions in different magnitudes and in different times. Despite this high exposure and despite the many studies done on the different impacts of the hazards, a particular model is yet to be applied on the vulnerabilities of the people to disaster as a result of the aforementioned hazard events. People experience hazards events differently and this determines whether the event turns into a disaster or not. This outcome of a hazard is highly dependent on the complex interactions between the ecological or physical and social systems. The social systems focuses on access to political power, decision-making, and resources, types of livelihoods, environmental conditions, and state of disaster risk reduction. These major factors determine the vulnerability of a people to disasters. The aim of this study was to adapt the recurring drought hazard in Kenya to a conceptual framework, the Pressure and Release (PAR) Model. To analyse how vulnerabilities with root causes, dynamic pressures and unsafe conditions contribute to transform the hazard to a disaster. Recurring drought exposure on a vulnerable group of people increases the magnitude of the disaster every season of its happening. Social services and relief help the people affected to recover but there is a need to engage more sustainable measures to curb the disaster through adequate disaster preparedness programmes and policies.
Drought, Famine, Disaster, Pressure and Release Model, Risk, Vulnerability, Kenya
Jones, R., & Boer, R. (2003). Assessing current climate risks adaptation policy framework: a guide for policies to facilitate adaptation to climate change. UNDP, in review, see http://www. undp. org/cc/apf-outline. htm.
Allen, K. (2003). 11 Vulnerability reduction and the community-based approach. Natural disasters and development in a globalizing world, 170.
Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., & Wisner, B. (1994). At risk: natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Routledge.
Adger, W. N., & Kelly, P. M. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and the architecture of entitlements. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 4(3), 253-266.
Cross, J. A. (2001). Megacities and small towns: different perspectives on hazard vulnerability. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 3(2), 63-80.
NDMC, (2016). What is Drought? http://drought.unl.edu/DroughtBasics/WhatisDrought.aspx, accessed 16 March 2017.
Wilhite, D. A., (2000). Preparing for drought: A methodology, in Wilhite, D. A. (ed.) Drought: A Global Assessment, Routledge Press, New York.
Pulwarty, R. S., & Sivakumar, M. V. (2014). Information systems in a changing climate: Early warnings and drought risk management. Weather and Climate Extremes, 3, 14-21.
Cannon, T. (2002). Food security, food systems and livelihoods: Competing explanations of hunger. Erde, 133(4), 345-361
Alamgir, M. (1981). An approach towards a theory of famine. Famine: Its causes, effects and management, 19-40.
Ayugi, B. O., Wen, W., & Chepkemoi, D. (2016). Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Rainfall Variations over Kenya. Analysis, 6(11).
UNOCHA, (2012). Horn of Africa Crisis: 2014-2017:http://reliefweb.int/disaster/dr-2014-000131-ken, accessed 20 March 2017.
UNOCHA, (2017). Horn of Africa: A Call for Action. URL:http://reliefweb.int/disaster/dr-2014-000131-ken, accessed 24 March 2017
Huho, J. M., Ngaira, J. K., & Ogindo, H. O. (2011). Living with drought: the case of the Maasai pastoralists of northern Kenya. Educational Research, 2(1), 779-789.
EDE CPP, (2012). Programming Framework to End Drought Emergencies in the Horn of Africa. Ending Drought Emergencies in Kenya. Country Programme Paper.
NDMA, (2016). Committed to Ending Drought Emergencies, URL:http://www.ndma.go.ke/, accessed 19 March 2017.
Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T. and Davis, I., (2004). At Risk. Natural hazards, People‘s Vulnerability and Disasters. Second Edition. Routledge, London.
Awal M. A., (2015). Vulnerability to Disaster: Pressure and Release Model for Climate Change Hazards in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Protection. 2(2), 2015, pp. 15-21.
KNBS, (2009). Kenya Facts and Figures, 2009, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Available at. http://www.knbs.or.ke.
USAID (2010). Dry lands livestock development program. Available at: http://kenya.usaid.gov/programs/economic-growth/412
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved