Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
GC-MS Analysis of Various Extracts of Sheanut Fat
Current Issue
Volume 3, 2015
Issue 6 (December)
Pages: 67-73   |   Vol. 3, No. 6, December 2015   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 127   Since Nov. 3, 2015 Views: 1506   Since Nov. 3, 2015
Aliyu Ahmad Warra, Department of Biochemistry, Kebbi State University of Science & Technology, Aliero, Nigeria.
This work focuses on GC-MS analysis of the fatty acid composition of the shea nut fats obtained from selected areas of Kebbi State, Nigeria. The fats were extracted by local traditional and soxhlet extraction methods. The study involves different extraction procedures to identify and confirm fatty acids. The GC-MS spectra interpretation is restricted to compounds identification. The GC-MS fragments revealed the following fatty acids profile;Oleic acid (C18H34O2), Palmitic acid (C16H32O2), Stearic acid (C18H32O2), Undecylenic acid (C11H20O2), Methyl ricinoleate (C19H36O3), Behenic acid (C23H46O2), Tridecylic acid (CH3 (CH2)11COOH), Nonadecanoic acid(CH3 (CH2)17COOH). Even though the work have limitation in comparison of the extraction methods and the results obtained. However the results showed the potential of the Traditional local and hexane extracts of the shea nut fats in cosmetics, perfumery and pharmaceuticals.
Sheanut Fat, Physico-Chemical, GC-MS, Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals
Olaniyan, A. M. and Oje, K (2011). Development of model equations for selecting optimum parameters for dry process of shea butter extraction. Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds. 2(4): 47-56.
Maranz, S., Wiesman, Z. (2003). Phenolic constituents of shea kernels (Vitellaria paradoxa). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 6268-6273.
Maranz, S., Kpikpi, W., Wiesman, Z., Sauveur, A., D., Chapagain, B. (2004a). Nutritional Values and Indigenous Preferences for Shea Fruits (Vitellaria Paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. F.) in African Agroforestry Parklands. Journal of Economic Botany 58(4) pp.588-600.
Hall, J., B., Aebischer, P., D., Tomlinson, H., F., Osei-Amaning, E. & Hindle, J., R. (1996). Vitellaria paradoxa: a monograph. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, UK. 105pp.
Kapseu, C., Bup, N., D., Tchiengang, C., Abi, C., F., Broto, and F., Parmentier, M. (2007). Effect of particle size and drying temperature on drying rate and oil extracted yield of Buccholziacoriacea (MVAN) and But yrospermumparkii (ENGL). International journal of Food science and Technology 42 573-578.
Maranz, S., Weisman, Z., Bisgaard, J. and Bianchi, G. (2004b). Germplasm resources of Vitellaria paradoxa based on variation in fat composition across the distribution range. Agroforestry systems 60: 71-76.
Dei, H., K, Rose, S., P. and Mackenzie A., M. (2007). Shea nut meal as feed ingredient for Poultry. World Poultry Science Journal, Vol, 63.
Okullo, J., B., L. (2004) Vitellaria paradoxa in Uganda: Population structures and reproductive characteristics. A thesis submitted in the University of Wales, Bangor, UK for the Philosophiae Degree. 303.
Warra, A. A. (2014). Cosmetic Potential of oil Extracts from Seeds and Nuts Commonly Found in Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited, Zaria, Nigeria. 4-9.
Khobe, D., K. M. Sanu and R. J. Bako, (2009). Oil extraction from shea nuts (Vittelaria paradoxum Gearn F.) using two local methods. Int. J. Tropical Agric. Food Syst., 3: 186-189.
Warra, A. A. (2014). Cosmetic Potential of oil Extracts from Seeds and Nuts Commonly Found in Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited, Zaria, Nigeria. pp 4-9.
Warra, A. A. and Ahmad, A. J. (2014). Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Sheanut Fat Extracts from Selected Areas of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Research and Reviews: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 3(1):15-18.
Warra, A. A., Jega, S. A., Ahmad and Abbas, M. Y. (2013). Comparative Physico-chemical Analysis of Traditional and Hexane Extracts of Shea nut Fat. Applied Science Reports. 3 (1): 100-102.
NIST (2012). GC-MS NIST Library Information Manual.
PubChem (2014). Elaidic acid. Accessed 12/12/2014 at pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ Elaidic acid
National Institute for Standard Technology (2014). Octadecanoic acid. Accessed 14/12/2014 at http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?Name=stearic+acid&Units=SI
Bockisch, M (1998). Fats and Oils Handbook. AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois.p58
Gunstone, F. D (2004). The chemistry of oils and fats sources, composition, properties and uses. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK. p54.
Gunstone, F. D Harwood, J. L and Dijkstra, A. J. (2007). The lipid handbook 3rd ed. CRC Preooooooss, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, London p634.
Santa Cruz Biotech (2014). Ricinoleic acid methyl ester.www.scbt.com.Accessed 3/1/2015.
Cayman Chemical Supplier (2014). www.caymanchem.com. Accessed 3/1/2015
Chemical Dictionary Online (2015). Tridecene. Accessed 22/4/2015 at http://www.chemicaldictionary.org/dic/1/1-Tridecene_2086.html
wiseGEEK (2015). Erucic acid. Accessed 22/4/2015 athttp://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-erucic-acid.htm
ChEBI (2014). Nonadecanoic acid. Accessed 12/1/2014 at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:39246
Truth in Aging (2015). Myristic Acid .aceessed 22/4/2015 at https://www.truthinaging.com/ingredients/myristic-acid
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2015). Isopropyl myristate. Accessed 22/4/2015 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isopropyl_myristate
Santa Cruz Biotech (2014). Ricinoleic acid methyl ester. www.scbt.com.Accessed 3/1/2015
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved