Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
A Criminological Study on the Dark Figure of Crime as a Socio-ecological Bulk of Victimization
Current Issue
Volume 4, 2016
Issue 4 (August)
Pages: 35-39   |   Vol. 4, No. 4, August 2016   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 65   Since Jun. 24, 2016 Views: 1409   Since Jun. 24, 2016
Authors
[1]
Md. Kamruzzaman, School of Victimology and Restorative Justice, Institute of Social Welfare and Research, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; School of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh; School of Law, National University, Gazipur, Bangladesh.
Abstract
This epidemiological research was carried out especially on victim taking data from both primary and secondary sources using non-probability purposive sampling with 70 respondents from Tangail Sadar, Bangladesh. Among them 50% became victimized within last one year while 78.57% were male and 55.7% were Farmer with 65.71% married. Most of them were victimized by assault (34.28%) while 24.28% didn’t lodge General Diary regarding the crime occurrence and 66.66% wanted to avoid criminal justice system for the sake of taking bribery by police (26.08%). The study also found 74.2% victimization occurred in house while 68.57% at night. Most of them were victimized for land or property dispute (31%), 11% for dowry and 9% were instinctive victimizer. Average Dark Figure of Crime was 6.25 (per thousand) while respondents (45.7%) suggested strict law enforcement, (30.0%) legislative administration and public awareness rising and (24.30%) developing relationship between public and police can reduce victimization.
Keywords
Dark Figure, Crime, Victimization, Socio-Ecological Bulk, Criminological Study
Reference
[1]
Loukaitou-Sideris, A. R. Liggett, and H. Iseki (2002). The Geography of Transit Crime. Documentation and Evaluation of Crime Incidence on and around the Green Line Stations in Los Angeles, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 22: 135-161.
[2]
Hadi A. (2005). Risk factors of violent death in Rural Bangladesh, 1990–1999, Death Studies, 29(6): 559–572.
[3]
Perkins, D., and B. Taylor (1993). The Physical Environment of Street Crime, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13: 29-49.
[4]
Elias, Robert (1986). The Politics of Victimization: Victims, Victimology, and Human Rights.
[5]
Hawker D. S. J., Boulton M. J. (2000). Twenty years' research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41 (4): 441–455.
[6]
Kamruzzaman M. (2015). Child Victimization at Working Places in Bangladesh, Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(5): 516-520.
[7]
Karmen A. (1984). Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology, Wardsworth Publishing, p. 35-38.
[8]
Finkelhor, D. (1995). The victimization of children: A developmental perspective, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65(2): 177–93.
[9]
Kamruzzaman M. (2015). Dowry related Violence against Rural Women in Bangladesh, American Journal of Psychology and Cognitive Science, 1(4): 112-116.
[10]
Block, R., AND C. R. Block (2000). The Bronx and Chicago: Street Robbery in the Environs of Rapid Transit Stations, London: Mollenkopf, J. (Ed.).
[11]
Kamruzzaman, M., Hakim, M. A. (2015). Child Criminalization at Slum Areas in Dhaka City, American Journal of Psychology and Cognitive Science, 1(4): 107-111.
[12]
Block, R., and S. Davis (1996). The Environs of rapid Transit Stations: A Focus for Street Crime or Just another Risky Place? Monesy, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
[13]
Ahuja, Ram. (1996). Sociological Criminology: New Delhi, India, International (P) Limited, p.50-52.
[14]
Akers, L. Ronald., (1994). Criminological Theories: Introduction and Evaluation, California: Roxbury Publishing Company, p. 111-119.
[15]
Brantingham, P. L., and P. J. Brangtingham (1993). Nodes, Paths, and Edges: Considerations on the Complexity of Crime and Physical Environment, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 3-28.
[16]
Kamruzzaman M and Hakim MA. (2016). Livelihood Status of Fishing Community of Dhaleshwari River in Central Bangladesh, International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2(1): 25-29.
[17]
Duffala, D. C (1976). Convenience Stores: Armed Robbery and Physical Environmental Features, American Behavioral Scientist, 20: 227-246.
[18]
Harrell, A., and C. Jouvis (1994). Community Decay and Crime, (NIJ-IJ-CX-K016), The Urban Institute, Washington, DC: final report.
[19]
Gifford, R. (1993). Crime and Context: A Complex, Crucial Conundrum, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13: 1-2.
[20]
Greenberg, S., and W. Rohe (1984). Neighborhood Design and Crime, APA Journal, 50:1, 48-61.
[21]
Kamruzzaman, M. and Hakim, M. A. (2015). Family Planning Practices among Married Women attending Primary Health Care Centers in Bangladesh. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1 (3): 251-255.
[22]
Liggett, R. (2001). The Bus Stop- Environment Concretion: Do Characteristics of the Build Environment Correlate with Bus Stop Crime? Transportation Research Record 1760, p. 20-27.
[23]
Kamruzzaman, M and Hakim, M. A. (2015). Socio-economic Status of Child Beggars in Dhaka City. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 1 (5): 516-520.
[24]
Shaw, C., and H. McKay (1929). Delinquency areas, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[25]
Mayhew, P. (1981). Crime in public View: Surveillance and Crime Preventation, Beverly Hills: P. J. Brantingham and P. L. Brantingham (Eds.).
[26]
Shabnam N, Faruk MO and Kamruzzaman M. (2016). Underlying Causes of Cyber-Criminality and Victimization: An Empirical Study on Students. Social Sciences, 5(1): 1-6.
[27]
Rhodes, W., and C. Conly (1981). Crime and Mobility: An Empirical Study, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
[28]
Wilson, Q., and Kelling (1982). Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety, Atlantic Monthly, 249 (3), 29-38.
[29]
Perkins, D., J. Meeks, and R. Taylor (1992). The Physical Environment of Street Blocks and Resident Perceptions of Crime and Disorder: Implications for Theory and Measurement, Journal of Environmental Criminology, 12: 21-34.
[30]
Loukaitou-Sideris, A. (1999). Hot Spots of Bus Stop Crime: The Importance of Environmental Attributes. Journal of the American Planning Association, 65(4), 395-411.
[31]
Taylor, R., and A. Harrell (1966), Physical Environment and Crime, National Institute of Justice Research Report.
[32]
Taylor, R., S. Gottfredson, and S. Brower (1980). “The Defensibility of Defensible Space,” Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
[33]
Rahman MA, Rahman SM, Haque NM and Kashem MB. (2009). A Dictionary of Criminology and Police Science, p. 267.
[34]
Hakim, M. A. and Kamruzzaman, M. (2015). Nutritional Status of Central Bangladesh Street Children. American Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research, 2 (5): 133-137.
[35]
Hakim, M. A. and Kamruzzaman, M. (2015). Nutritional Status of Preschoolers in Four Selected Fisher Communities. American Journal of Life Sciences, 3 (4): 332-336.
[36]
Kamruzzaman, M. and Hakim M. A. (2016). Socio-economic Status of Slum Dwellers: An Empirical Study on the Capital City of Bangladesh, American Journal of Business and Society, 1(2): 13-18.
[37]
Kamruzzaman, M. and Hakim M. A. (2016). Factors Associated with the Suicidal Tsunami as a Mental Illness: Findings from an Epidemiological Study, American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 1(1): 1-5.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
CONTACT US
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
E-mail:
LET'S GET IN TOUCH
Name
E-mail
Subject
Message
SEND MASSAGE
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved