Extraction and Characterization of Vegetable Oils from Legume and Palmae; Using African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and “Akwu Ojukwu” (Elais guineensis) Respectively
The extraction and characterization of vegetable oils from the seed of Pentaclethra macrophylla (oil bean) and Elaeis guineensis (akwu Ojukwu) was done. Extraction was carried out by solvent extraction method using petroleum spirit as the solvent for “akwu Ojukwu” fibre and petroleum ether for oil bean kernel. There was a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the oil yield of “akwu Ojukwu” fibre (48%) when compared to oil bean seed (32%). Some Physico-chemical, vitamin and mineral parameters of both oils were analyzed. Results of the physico-chemical analysis showed no significant difference (P≤0.05) in the relative density, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value of both oils. The melting point and acid value (250C and 7.35mg respectively) of “akwu Ojukwu” oil increased significantly (P≤0.05) when compared with that of oil bean seed oil (220C and 3.62mg respectively). On the other hand, the moisture content (0.40%), iodine value (53.25mg) and saponification value (196.38mg) of ”akwu Ojukwu” oil decreased significantly to that of oil bean oil (8.80%, 121.80mg and 213.10mg respectively). “Akwu Ojukwu” oil was red while oil bean oil had a light-yellow colour. The vitamin and mineral determination showed that P, Fe and vitamin C content increased significantly (P≤0.05) in oil bean seed oil. The general result shows that “akwu Ojukwu” oil is a non-drying oil, while oil bean oil is a semi-drying oil. Both oils could be used for edible (when processed), medicinal and industrial purposes.
Vegetable oils, Legume, Palmae, Extraction and Characterization
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