Effects of Probiotic Bacteria from Yogurt on Enzyme and Serum Cholesterol Levels of Experimentally Induced Hyperlipidemic Wistar Albino Rats
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and confirm in vivo the cholesterol lowering effect of three commercialized yogurts sold in Buea, a town located in the South West Region of Cameroon. These yogurts are normally known to contain Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. Following diet induced hyperlipidemia, animal model (wistar albino rats) was used to confirm the persistence of their probiotic cholesterol lowering effect after processing. 42 rats were divided into 7 groups: the positive control group (received hyperlipidemia diet (cholesterol /lard rich diet) + oral gavage of deionized water), the negative control group (fed with basal diet +oral gavage of deionized water), three test groups (fed with hyperlipidemia diet and 3 different types of commercialized yogurt administered orally by gavage respectively), ferment free group (received basal diet + oral administration of yogurt constituents free of ferments (culture)) and hyperlipidemia ferment free group (received hyperlipidemia diet + oral yogurt constituents free of ferments). The oral gavage was daily and the dose volume administered was 1.0 ml/kg body weight. The rats were acclimatized for one week followed by the experimental phase properfor 4 weeks. Daily food consumed and daily weight gains were recorded. At the end of the fourth week, rats were dissected and blood collected for biochemical analysis (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, albumin and transaminases activities (ASAT and ALAT)). Organs of the rats (heart, liver, spleen and kidney) were also removed and weighed. Rat growth response revealed no significant change in weight of rats as well as in weights of different organs among test groups meanwhile the weight of these organs and the weight gained by hyperlipidemic group were relatively high compared to test and negative control groups. A slight elevation of ASAT and ALT activities was observed only in Hyperlipidemia rats while the test group did not show any significant increase of these serum enzymes. Results also show that the yogurt administration to hyperlipidemic / hypercholesterolemic rats induced a significant decrease in the total serum cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, albumin, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and a significant increase of HDL-cholesterol concentration in sera of test groups. In conclusion, our data support the consumption of potential probiotic yogurt to decrease serum cholesterol and also confirm the persistence of probiotic effects after these yogurts processing techniques.
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