Fish culture production in Nigeria is low due to high cost of conventional fish feed. The cost of fishmeal, one of the components of feed ingredients, is high and it has necessitated the search for a cheaper source of protein that will promote growth. The growth performance of fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) to diets with varying levels of inclusion of Aspatharia sinuata (L), a freshwater bivalve, was studied. Five diets were formulated designated as treatments A, B, C, D and E containing 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% A. sinuata. The control diet contained 0% A. sinuata. The fish were grown for a period of 110 days in concrete tanks. The highest haemoglobin concentration (Hb) of 10.43±1.29g/dL in male species was observed in group fed with 40% inclusion of A. sinuata meal (diet D) while the lowest Hb (7.43±0.81g/dL) was observed in group fed with 50% A. sinuatameal (diets E). In the female species the highest Hb (9.50±0.84g/dL) was observed in diet B, fed with 20% A. sinuata meal while the lowest Hb (6.50±0.42g/dL) was observed in diet E. The highest red blood cell count (RBC) of the male fish species (2.94±0.34 x 106/µL) was observed in group fed with 40% inclusion of A. sinuata meal (diet D) while the lowest RBC (2.09±0.15 x 106/µL) was observed in group fed with 50% A. sinuate meal (diets E). In the female species the highest RBC (2.52±0.31 x 106/µL) was observed in diet B, fed with 20% inclusion of A. sinuata meal while the lowest RBC (1.87±0.12 x106/µL) was observed in group fed with 50% inclusion of A. sinuata meal (diet E). Statistical analysis of RBC showed that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the male and female species in all the diet groups. The results revealed that inclusion of A. sinuata meal from 20% to 40% in the diet of C. gariepinus promoted growth. This indicates that inclusion of up to 40% of Aspatharia meal alongside the ingredients used in this study could be used for pond production of C. gariepinus. Feeding C. gariepinus with formulated feeds of 40% inclusion of A. sinuata meal alongside the other ingredients is cost effective and profit oriented.
AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis. Association of official analytical chemists. 15th edition, Washington, C, Arlington pp1230.
Aldrin, J. F., J. L. Messager and S. Saleun, (1982). Analyses sanguineous de turbots d”eleuages im-mature (Scophtalmus maximus L.).Aquaculture, 40: 17-25.
Alatise, S. P., Ogundele, O. and Olaosebikan, B. D. (2005) Growth response of heterobranchus longifilisingerlings fed with varying levels of dietary fresh water musse l (Aspatharia sinuata).
Barrow F T, GaylordTG, Stone D A J and Smith C E (2007) Effect of protein source and nutrient density on growth efficiency, histology and plasma amino acid concentration of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aquaculture Research 38: 1747-1758.
Bhaskar, B. R. and K. S. Rao, 1985. Some haematological parameters of tarpon Megalops cyprinoids (Broussonet) from isakhapatham harbour. Matsy, 11: 63-69.
Blay Jr .J. (1986). Studies on the biology of the fresh water bivalve Aspatharia sinuata (Von. Marten 1883) nionacea. Mutelidae Ph. D. Dissertation Dept. of Zoology University of Aberdeen Ed.107p.
Boyd C E and Tucker C S (1998) Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management. Boston, M A: Kluwer academic publishers, USA. 700 pages
Cech, J. J. and D. E. Wohlschlag, (1981). Seasonal patterns of respiration, gill ventilation and haematological characteristics in the striped mullet Mugilcephalus.Bull.Mar.Sci., 31: 112-119.
Collazos, M. E., E. Ortega, C. Barriga and A. B. Rodriguez, (1998). Seasonal variation in haematological parameters male and female Tincatinca. Mol. Cell. Biochem, 183: 165-168.
Coyle S D, Gordon J M, James H T and Carl D W (2004) Evaluation of growth, feed utilization, and economic hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X Oreochromis aureus, fed diets containing different protein sources in combination with distillers dried grains with soluble. Aquaculture Research 35: 365-370.
FAO (2010) State of world fisheries and aquaculture 2010. FAO fisheries and aquaculture department, Rome, italy. 218 pp Retrieved 1st November, 2011.
Gbore, F. A., O. Oginni, A. M. Adewole and J. O. Aladetan, (2006). The effect of transportation and handling tress on haematology and plasma bio-hemistry in fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii. World Journal of Agricultural Sci-ences, 2: 208-212.
Hickey, C. R. Jr., (1982). Comparative haematology of wild and captive cunners. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 11: 242-249.
Jauncey K (1998) Tilapia Feeds and Feeding. Pisces Press Ltd. Stirling, Scotland. 242pp.
Keembiyehetty C N and de Silvam S S (1993) Performance of juvenile Oreochromis niloticus (L.) reared on diets containing cowpeas, Vignacatiang, and black gram, Phaseolus mungo, seeds. Aquaculture 112: 207-215.
Li J, Zhang L, MaiK, AiQ, Zhang C, Li H, Duan Q and Ma H (2010) Potential of several protein sources as meal substitutes in diets for large yellow croaker, Pseudoscia enacrocea R. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 41: 278-283.
Mbahinzireki G B, Dabrows kilK, Lee KJ, El-Saidy D and Wisner E R (2001) Growth, feedutilization and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fed with cotton seed meal-based diets in a recirculating system. Aquaculture Nutrition 7: 189-200.
Nyina-wamwiza L, Wathelet Band Kestemont P (2007) Potential of local agricultural byproducts for the earingog Afrian catfish, Clarias gariepinus, in Rwanda: effects on growth, feed utilization and body composition. aquaculture Research 38: 206-214.
Ogunji J, Toor R S ,Schulz C and Kloas W (2008) Growth Performance, Nutrien tUtilization of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Housefly Maggot Meal (Magmeal) Diets. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquaticciences 8: 141-147.
Orun, I., M. Dorucu and H. Yazlak, (2003). Haematological parameters of three cyprinid fish species from arakaya Dam Lake, Turkey. Online J. Biol. Sci., 3: 320-328.
Otubusin S O, Ogunleye F O and Agbebi O T (2009) Feeding trials using local protein sources to replace fisheal in pelleted feeds in Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchel l1822) culture. European Journal of Scientific Research 31: 142-147.
Soltan M A, Hanafy M A and Wafa M I A (2008) Effect o fReplacing Fish Meal by a Mixture of Different lant Protein Source sin Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusL.) Diets. Global Veterinaria 2: 157-164.
Subhadra B, Lochmann R, Rawles S and Chen R (2006) Effect of fish meal replacement with poultry by product meal on the growth, tissue composition and hematological parameters of large mouth bass (Micropterusal moides) fed diets containing different lipids. Aquaculture 260: 221-231.
Tacon A G J, Metian Mand Hasan M R (2009) Feed ingredients and fertilizers for farmed aquatic canimals: sources and composition. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 540. Rome, Italy. Retrievedon 1st ovember, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/docrep /012/i114 2e/i1142e00.htm
Vakily, J. M. (1992). Determination and Comparism of bivalve growth rate with emphasis on Thailand and other tropic alareas. ICL ARMT ech. Report. 76. 125pp.
Winfree R A and Stickney R R (1981) Effects of dietary protein and energy on growth, feed conversion efficiency and body compositionof Tilapia aurea. The Journal of Nutrition 111: 1001-1012.
Yakubu M. T and Afolayan A. J (2009). Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis Baker stem on haematological and serum lipid profile of male Wistarrats Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 47, pp .83-288.