Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Studies on the Food Composition and Feeding Pattern of Fish Communities in Qua Iboe River, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
Current Issue
Volume 2, 2014
Issue 5 (October)
Pages: 122-134   |   Vol. 2, No. 5, October 2014   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 77   Since Aug. 28, 2015 Views: 1762   Since Aug. 28, 2015
Imaobong Emmanuel Ekpo, Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Environmental Management, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo - 520001, Nigeria.
Ofonmbuk Ime Obot, Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Environmental Management, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo - 520001, Nigeria.
Mandu Asikpo Essien-Ibok, Department of Fisheries & Aquatic Environmental Management, University of Uyo, P.M.B. 1017, Uyo - 520001, Nigeria.
Trends in the diets and feeding activity of 21 families of fish comprising 37 species, 29 genera and 543 individuals from two ecologically distinct zones of Qua Iboe River were investigated from July – October 2008. The Relative Frequency, Percentage Point and Index of Food Dominance methods were used to determine their diets and feeding patterns. The proportion of fish with food were higher (339; 62.43%) than those without food (204; 37.57%) but were statistically not significant (P>0.05). Of the 356 specimens examined in Station 1, 198 (55.62%) had food while 158 (44.38%) were without food. Out of the 187 specimens in Station 2, 141 (75.40%) had food while 46 (24.60%) were without food. In all, 204 specimens (37.57%) had empty stomachs, 79 (14.55%) had full stomachs whereas 63 (11.60%), 89 (16.39%) and 82 (15.10%) were for ¾, ½ and ¼ respectively. The six specimens of P. africana had empty stomach. Among the fish species represented by single specimen, only A. fasciatus had empty stomach. Two of the remaining five species: E. aeneus and S. barracuda had fully distended stomachs while T. goreensis and X. nigri had their stomachs half full. The remaining two species, P. peroteti and T. guineensis) had three quarter full and one quarter full stomachs respectively. A total of thirteen major food items were identified: nine in Station 1 and twelve in Station 2. In Station 1, the dominant food item was sediments (75.16%) and the least was amphibians (5.10%). Fish and sediments were the dominant food items (15.63%) while unidentified food was the least (1.56%) in Station 2. However, high values of unidentified foods and in more species were recorded in Station 1 than Station 2. The food of these species were diversified containing both plant, animal and non-living materials.
Stomach Contents, Food Habit, Feeding Intensity, Fish Communities, Nigeria
Foster, S.S.D. The Interdependence of groundwater and urbanization in rapidly developing cities. Urban Water 2001; 3: 209-215.
Howard, G., Pedley, S., Barrett, M., Nolubega, M. and Johal, K. Risk factors contributing to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Research 2003; 37, 3421-3429.
Pasquini, M.W. and Alexander, M.J. Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: Implication for agriculture. Science of the Total Environment 2004; 319 (1-3), 225-240.
Verplanck, P.I., Nordstrom, D.K., Plumlee, G.S., Wanty, R.B., Bove, D.J. and Caine, J.S. Hydrochemical controls on surface and groundwater chemistry in natural acidic porphyry-related mineralized areas, southern Rocky Mountains. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 2006; 25: 231-241.
Udousoro, I. and Umoren, I. (2014). Assessment of surface and ground water quality of Uruan in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2014; 4(6): 2224 - 3186.
Usip, L.P., Udoidiong, O.M., Ekpo, I.E. and Ukut, I.I. Parasites of cultured Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from three fish farms, Uyo Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Food Science and Technology 2014; 3(2): 084 - 089.
Clarkson, W.T. The three modern faces of mercury. Environ. Health Perspect 2002; 110 (1): 11–23.
Ogbeibu, A.E. and Ezeunara, P.U. Studies on the food composition and feeding pattern of fish communities in Ikpoba River, southern Nigeria. Journal of Aquatic Sciences 2005; 20(2): 117 – 129.
Fagade, S.O. and Olaniyan, C.I.O. The food and feeding interrelationship of the fishes of Lagos lagoon. J Fish Biol 1973; 5: 205 - 227.
King, R.P., O.M. Udoidiong, E.C. Egwali and N.A. Nkanta. Some aspects of the trophic biology of Ilisha africana (Teleostei: Clupeidae) in Qua Iboe estuary, Nigeria. Cybium 1990; 261-274.
King, R.P. and Akpan, I.J. Diet spectrum of the mugilid fish taxocene in Qua Iboe estuary, Nigeria. In: R.P. King and B.S. Moses (eds). Fish and Fisheries of Southeastern, Uyo - Nigeria. Pp 56-65; 1998.
Akpan, A.W. and Ubak, R.G. The trophic ecology of Liza grandisquamis (Valenciennes: 1836) (Pisces: Mugilidae) in Qua Iboe River estuary, east of the Niger Delta. J Sus Trop Agric Res 2004a; (10): 12 – 19.
Udo, M.T. and Akpan, A.W. Intersexual and spatial heterogeneity in trophic attributes of the sleeper, Bostrychus africanus (Eleotridae) in the Qua Iboe estuary, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of FISON 2005; pp 58 – 68.
Udo, M.T., Akpan, A.W. and Larson, H. Ontogenetic shift in the diet and foraging behaviour of the schlegel’s goby, Porogobius schlegelii (Gobiidae) in the Qua Iboe estuary, South Eastern Nigeria. J Aqua Sci 2008a; 23(1): 77 – 86.
Udo, M.T., Akpan, A.W., Ekpo, I.E., Essien-Ibok, M.A. and Lebo, P.E. Changes in the trophic attributes of the Atlantic mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus (Gobiidae) between a mangrove and nipa palm swamp creek of Qua Iboe River estuary, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries 2008b; 5(2): 175 – 183.
Udo, M.T. and Oribhabor, B.J. (2012). Status and seasonal dynamics in the fecundity of Bostrychus africanus (Pisces - Eleotridae) in an estuarine swamp of southeastern Nigeria. Trop Freshwa Biol 2012; 21(2): 71 – 80.
Tahal Consultants (Nigeria) Ltd. Qua Iboe River basin prefeasibility study: Cross River Basin Development Authority, Nigeria, 2, Annex II: A- 4 – 14; 1979.
Akpan AW. Preliminary investigation into the physical hydrology of Qua Iboe River in South Eastern Nigeria. Trans Nig Soc Biol Conserv 1991; (2): 113 - 122.
Google earth, 2014. Image 2014 Digital Globe. Google Image Landsat.
Fagade, S.O. The food and feeding habits of the fishes of lower River Benue (Nigeria). Bulletin de I’IFAN 1983; 45: 316–341.
Ekpo, I.E. Ornamental fish species potentials of Ikpa River in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 2013c; 3(6): 61-66.
Holden, M. and Reed, W. West African freshwater fishes. Longman, London, UK. 67pp; 1972.
Olaosebikan, B.D. and Raji, A. Field guide to Nigerian freshwater fishes. Federal College of Freshwater Fisheries Technology, New Bussa. 103 pp. 1988.
Idodo-Umeh G. Freshwater fishes of Nigeria. Idodo-Umeh Publishers, Nigeria. 2005. 229pp.
Hynes, H.B.N. Fish of fresh water sticklebacks with a review of methods used in the studies of food fishes. J Anim Ecol 1950; 19:36-56.
Nataragan, A.V. and A.G. Jhingram. Index of preponderance. A method of grading the food elements in the stomach analysis of fishes. Indian J Fish 1961; 8: 54-59.
Hyslop DJ. Stomach analysis – A review of methods and their application. J Fish Biol 1980; (17): 411 - 429.
King RP. Observations on Liza falcipinnis (Valenciennes, 1862) in Bonny River, Nigeria. Rev Hydrobiol Trop 1988a; (21): 62 - 70.
King RP. Distribution, abundance, size and feeding habits of Brienomyrus brachyistus (Gill, 1862) (Teleostei: Mormyridae) in a Nigerian rainforest stream. Cybium, 1988b; (31): 25 - 36.
Offem, B.O., Samsons, Y.A. and Omoniyi, I.T. Trophic ecology of commercially important fishes in the Cross River, Nigeria. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 2009; 19(1): 37 – 44.
Albertoni, E.F., Palma-Silva, C. and Esteves, F. Natural diet of three species of shrimps in a tropical coastal lagoon. Brazilian Archive of Biological Technology 2003; 46(3): 395 – 403.
Nwani, C.D., Eyo, J. and Udeh, E.F. Food and feeding habits of Campylomormyrus Tamandua in Anambra River, Nigeria. Animal Research International 2006; 3(1): 410 – 414.
Ezenwaji, H.M.G. and Inyang, N.M. Observation on the biology of Clarias agboyiensis (Sydenham, 1980) (Osteichthyes: Clariidae) in the Anambra flood river system, Nigeria. Fish Res 1998; 36: 47 –60.
Ezenwaji, H.M.G. The abundance and trophic biology of Clarias albopunctatus (Nichols and La Monte, 1953) (Osteichthyes: Clariidae) in a tropical flood river basin. Hydrobiologia 1999; 392: 159 –168.
Lowe-McConnel, R.H. Fresh water fishes of the Volta and Kainji Lakes. Ghana University Press, Accra, 284p; 1972.
Welcomme, R.L. Fisheries ecology of floodplain river. Longman, London. UK 317pp; 1979.
Yem, I. Y., Bankole, N.O., Ogunfowora, O. and Ibrahim, B.U. Food habit of the catfish Chrysichthys auratus (Geoffrey Saint – Hilaire, 1808) in Kainji Lake, Nigeria. Nature and Science 2009; 7(3): 1545-0740.
Nwani, C.D., Odoh, G.E., Ude, E.F. and Okogwu, O.I. Food and feeding habits of Gnathonemus petersii (Osteichthyes: Mormyridae) in Anambra River, Nigeria. Int. Aquat. Res 2011; 3: 45-51.
Welcomme, R.L. Inland fisheries. Ecology and Management. Blackwell Science Press, England, pp.1 – 358; 2001.
Sturm, M.G.De. On the biology of the Catfish, Chrysichthys auratus (Geoffory) in man -made Tiga Lake in Northern Nigeria. Freshwater Biology 1984; 14: 49 – 58.
Risch, L. Het genus, Chrysichthys (Blecker 1858) en Aanverwante genera (Pisces, Siluriformes, Bagridae). These de Doctorat K. U. Leuven 1986; 2: 8 - 11.
Imevbore, A.M.A. and Bakare, O. The food and feeding habits of non-cichlid fishes of the River Niger in the Kainji reservoir area. In: Kainji Lake Studies, Biology. (Ed. Visser, S. A.), University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria 1970; 1: 49-64.
Brown, J.A. and Colgan, P.A. The ontogeny of feeding behaviour in four species of the Cichlidae. Proceedings. 1984; pp 9395 - 9411.
Oribhabor, B.J. and Ogbeibu, A.E. The food and feeding habits of fish species assemblage in a Niger Delta mangrove creek, Nigeria. J Fish Aquat Sci 2012; 7: 134-149.
Kumar, D.V., Sarkar, U.K., Pandey, A. and Larkra, W.S. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the River Ganga basin, India. Revista de Biologia Tropical 2013; 16(3): 1351 – 1363.
Adebisi, A.A. (1981). Analysis of the stomach contents of the piscivorous fishes of the upper Ogun River in Nigeria. Hydrobiologia 1981; 79: 167 – 177.
King, R.P. 1989: Distribution, abundance, size and feeding habits of Brienomyrus brachyistus (Gill, 1862) (Teleostei: Mormyridae) in a Nigerian Rainforest Stream. Cybium 1989; 13(1): 25-36.
Fatema, A., Manzah, W.O. and Isa, M.M. Identification of food and feeding habits of mullet fish, Liza subviridis (Valenciennes, 1836), Valamugil buchanani (Bleeker, 1853) from Merbok estuary, Kedah, Malaysia. Journal of Life Sciences and Technologies 2013; 1(1): 47 – 50.
Welcomme, R.L. River Fisheries. FAO Fish Tech Pap 1985; 262: 1-330.
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved