Welcome to Open Science
Contact Us
Home Books Journals Submission Open Science Join Us News
Definition and Portrait of Twere in Mbosi Oral Literature in Congo-Brazzaville
Current Issue
Volume 4, 2017
Issue 2 (March)
Pages: 6-11   |   Vol. 4, No. 2, March 2017   |   Follow on         
Paper in PDF Downloads: 70   Since Jan. 8, 2018 Views: 1190   Since Jan. 8, 2018
Mesmin Obah, Department of English Language and Literature, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China.
Luo Lianggong, Department of English Language and Literature, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China.
This text presents the problem of "Otwere", mbosi traditional literature in Congo-Brazzaville, one of literature, essentially oral, that has been influenced by other cultures. Today, despite this influence, many observers claim that it is at the heart of the productions of African literature. Of Congolese origin, Otwere is initially a form of expression of the oral culture. But, at the beginning of the first half of the nineteenth century with the proliferation of works by African authors in European languages, Otwere benefits from its first written form and is exported to more horizons. Like Humanism (1530-1600), a European literary movement whose the Thematic studied was based on education, war, death, body and romantic relationships, Otwere is interested in the themes of succession conflicts, problems of hierarchy, polygamy, juvenile delinquency, fertility, theft, etc. To solve all these issues, the Mbosi gathered around Otwere set up a set of customary laws. Each member of society observes them. Otwere, in its infancy, was a mere institution whose role was to ensure social justice. Over time, other functions totally related to management and economic development have been developed giving it a more scientific character, to be inserted among the social sciences. Its members are made up of "Twere" (judge of Otwere), "A ngo Twere" (master of the code), "A nga Kwephe" (holders of the game bag), "Abiali" the notables, and "Ndinga or Mwene" the majors of the notables. But we will be interested in the Twere, legatee of the powers of Otwere to solve the social disputes as well as other cases which can aggravate the social fabric. We will define his personality, the various assets he has and his organizational sense.
Otwere, Twere, Mbosi, Customary Law, Humanism
Gassongo B. (Bishop): Otwere, ancestral judicature among Mbosi, Brazzaville, Lianes, 1979, p. 39.
Itoua J.: Otwere. Mbosi Traditional Institution (Congo Brazzaville), Paris, Harmattan, 2010, p. 296.
Itoua J.: The Mbosi in the Congo: People and Civilization, Paris, Harmattan, 2007.
Ngalebaye D.: Elements of Moral and Political Philosophy in Black Africa. Prospective Hermeneutical Essay, Paris, Edilivre, 2011, p. 204.
Ngalebaye D.: Otwere, The traditional judicature mbosi facing the challenges of Congolese modernity, Paris, Publibook, 2010, p. 177.
Obenga T.: The Congolese bowl. Men and Structures, Contribution to the Traditional History of Central Africa, Paris, African Presence, 1976, p. 4 7.
Obenga T.: Mbochi Traditional Literature, Paris, African Presence, 1984.
Kidiba S, Yekoka J. F: "Definition and Portrait of the Nzoonzi in Nkoongo culture in Congo Brazzaville" in Kouloumbou M. J and Mavouangui D.: Kongo values: specificity and university, Paris, Harmattan, 2013, pp. 149-161.
Ollandet J.: The Téké-Mbosi contracts. Essay on the Civilizations of the Congo Basin, PhD Thesis in History, Paul Valerie University of Montpellier, 1981, 2 volumes, T1. p 276; T2. P. 581.
Ollandet J.: North Congo. History and Civilization, Paris, Harmattan, 2013, p. 326.
Ngoïe-Ngalla D.: "The strong lines of the ancient history of Mouyondzi country” in Munari (Claudine, under the direction of): The centenary of Mouyondzi (1911-2011), Paris, Bajag-Meri.
Ndinga-Mbo A. C.: For a History of the Congolese Basin: Methodological Reflections, Paris, Harmattan, 2003, p. 308.
Roy E.: Africans and the institution of justice, Paris, Dalloz, 2004, p. 48; See also RCN Justice and Democracy, op.cit. P. 97.
Ntampaka C.: Introduction to African Judiciary Systems, University Press of Namur, 2005, p. 101.
Lemaire S., Deroo E. and Hats A.: History of skirmishers, Paris, Editions du Seuil, 2009, p. 8.
Elikia Mbokolo: Blacks and Whites in Equatorial Africa. Coastal Societies and French Penetration (circa 1820-1874), Paris, Edition of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Mouton Editor, 1981, p. 111.
Itoua D. I.: The traditional musical instruments of the Mbosi in Congo. Secrets and applications, Paris, Harmattan, 2014, p. 97.
Tati-Loutard J. B.: Anthology of Congolese literature of French expression. Volume 1. Second edition, Yaoundé, Editions Clé 1977.
Diop C. A.: African Antiquity through the Image, Paris, African Presence, 1976.
Barre R, Lachenal. G and Vidaud P.: Black Africa 1961 (Booklet 22), No. 503-Printing G. Gouin, Ezanville (S. and W.). - 2nd quarter, 1961. p. 143.
Place J. M.: The review of the black world. The review of the Black world (1931-1932, complete collection No. 1 to 6), Paris, New editions Jean-Michelle Place, 2012, p. 40.
Bidima (J-G): The palaver. A short of the word, Paris, Michalon, 1997, p. 10.
Gambeg Y. N.: Power and Society in the Teke Country (People's Republic of Congo, circa 1505 to 1957, Ph.D. thesis in the 3rd year of history, University Paris 1-Pantheon-Sorbonne, 1984, pp. 386-387.
Kagisye E.: Memory of DESS, University of Burundi 2006.
www. France-jeune.net: Close up on the literary currents
Open Science Scholarly Journals
Open Science is a peer-reviewed platform, the journals of which cover a wide range of academic disciplines and serve the world's research and scholarly communities. Upon acceptance, Open Science Journals will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.
Office Address:
228 Park Ave., S#45956, New York, NY 10003
Phone: +(001)(347)535 0661
Copyright © 2013-, Open Science Publishers - All Rights Reserved